In Florida, a task force founded by former Democratic Senator Chris Smith of Fort Lauderdale found the law “confusing.”  Among those discussing the issues with the group was Buddy Jacobs, a lawyer representing the Florida Prosecuting Attorneys Association. Jacobs recommended repealing the law, saying changing the law would not solve his problems. In a July 16, 2013 speech after the jury`s verdict, in which George Zimmerman was acquitted of the charge stemming from Trayvon Martin`s death, Attorney General Eric Holder criticized stand-your-ground laws as a “senseless extension of the concept of self-defense and sowing dangerous conflicts in our neighborhoods.”  Stand Your Ground laws are provisions of self-defense laws that justify the use of lethal force in the event of imminent danger of harm, whether or not a safe retirement is possible. The majority of U.S. states are self-governing states. Professor Kimberly Ferzan of the University of Pennsylvania School of Law explains the nuances of stand-your-ground regulations and how they relate to other self-defense doctrines. In many states, stand-you-ground laws provide additional civil immunities that prevent victims and witnesses who have suffered harm from suing the defendant.18,19 It is impossible to discuss stand-your-ground laws without first explaining the concept of withdrawal. In its most extreme form, the obligation to remove states that a person who faces imminent danger of personal harm must withdraw from the threat as much as possible before responding with lethal force in self-defence. Nearly half of U.S. states adhere to this standard, including New York, Iowa and Hawaii.
Everytown Research & Policy is a program of the Everytown for Gun Safety Support Fund, an independent, nonpartisan organization dedicated to understanding and reducing gun violence. Everytown Research & Policy strives to conduct methodologically rigorous research, support evidence-based policy, and communicate that knowledge to the U.S. public. 3. Paragraph 1 shall not apply where force is used or threatened by another person for the purpose of doing something that he or she is legally required or entitled to do in the course of law enforcement or enforcement, unless the person who commits the act constituting the offence has reasonable grounds to believe that the other person is acting unlawfully. (a) they believe, on reasonable grounds, that force is being used against them or any other person or that violence is being used against them or any other person; (b) the conduct constituting the offence is committed for the purpose of defending oneself or the other person against such use or threat or use of force; and (c) the act committed is appropriate in the circumstances. [omitted (2)] Trayvon Martin`s death in Florida in 2012 drew a lot of attention to so-called “Stand Your Ground” self-defense laws, which allow armed individuals who believe they are in imminent danger to use lethal force. The tragic situation in Florida and other similar situations across the country has led many people to question the wisdom of these laws and even call for their repeal. Nevertheless, many people defend these laws as necessary to defend themselves against potential perpetrators. Moderator: Stand-your-ground rules, perhaps you could quickly explain what they actually allow that other states don`t? Two months after Texas` Stand-Your-Ground law went into effect, a 61-year-old white man called law enforcement to report a burglary at his neighbors` homes by two black men. Although security forces ordered him to stay home and wait for them to arrive, the man approached the suspects and shot them in the back as they fled, killing them both. Under Texas law, this man would most likely have been convicted of murder.
They also found that the total number of shootings in the FBI`s register of black victims by whites was 25.  A 2015 study found that cases involving white victims were twice as likely to result in convictions under these laws as cases involving black victims.  Stand Your Ground laws create a dangerous culture of “shoot first, ask later” violence and are associated with an increase in homicides and non-fatal injuries. Stand-you-ground laws also exacerbate racial and gender inequalities entrenched in our criminal justice system. White men are more likely to successfully invoke the use of stand-your-ground laws in their defense after a shooting than black Americans or women. States with existing stand-your-ground laws should repeal those laws. States that do not have laws on the ground should not enact those laws. States differ on whether stand-your-ground law applies to cases of lethal force, with some states retaining the obligation to withdraw in the case of lethal force, and others waiving the obligation to withdraw in all circumstances. Some laws, such as Florida`s, include criminal immunity provisions that make it even more difficult to arrest and charge the accused.
Criminal immunity may prevent law enforcement authorities from making an arrest unless they have reasonable grounds to assume that the use of force was unlawful. Instead of requiring the defendant to prove that he acted in self-defense, these immunities shift the burden of proof to the state.16 Police and prosecutors must prove that the defendant did not act in self-defense.17 In 2005, the Florida State Legislature passed stand-you-ground legislation that reversed centuries of that duty to remove legal doctrine.11 Over the course of 15 years Following that, states across the country adopted measures similar to those in Florida. As of September 2021, 29 states had stand-your-ground laws, and another eight states had laws that extend the right to assert oneself beyond the home, such as to one`s own car or workplace.12 Kimberly Ferzan: What`s important about stand-your-ground laws is that sometimes we think it`s a complete abandonment of proportionality and necessity. And I think it`s important to realize that`s wrong. So it is always true that if someone comes to me and I have the opportunity to beat or shoot whoever stands up to your rights, I will have to beat him. I must not use force that is not necessary. Nor should I use disproportionate force. So if someone comes to me to beat me, I can`t stand up and use lethal force. So we still have proportionality and necessity at work, other than removing the requirement that defendants must flee if they can safely withdraw completely. At least 10 of those states have laws that NCSL says literally say you can get by. The Stand Your Ground law applies to any type of threat from an attacker that endangers the safety, health or life of the victim. The victim is not obliged to withdraw, as stated by the Supreme Court of Poland in a statement of 4 February 1972: “The person assaulted is not obliged to flee or hide from the aggressor in a locked room, nor to suffer the attack which restricts his freedom, but has the right to repel the attack by all available means, that are necessary to force the aggressor not to continue his attack.
 Moderator: There is therefore no obligation to retreat for non-lethal violence. There is no obligation to retire at home. The only place you need to retreat is before moving on to lethal force outside the house. Stand-you-ground laws allow individuals to escape prosecution for, among other things, the use of lethal force, even though they could easily and safely retreat.  Many of these laws also allow individuals to use lethal force to prevent the commission of certain crimes, such as robbery, even if the accused has no well-founded fear of death or serious injury.14 15 The so-called castle doctrine is similar to firmness, but is generally limited to real estate, including the house or place of business (and sometimes even his own car).